Best Shoes for Orangetheory For Women and Men
The “theory” behind an OrangeTheory routine is that the intense intervals get your heart rate up and keeps your body in the optimal fat burning zone during the workout and for long after you have collapsed on your couch once back at home. On average, an exercise enthusiast can burn between 500-1000 calories during that hour workout session. For help in choosing the best shoes for Orangetheory workouts, we searched through hundreds of shoes. Our list encompasses the top 10 shoes we found to be most helpful for your exercises. These shoes were reviewed through tough criteria that can be found below.
In a Hurry? The test winner after 105 hrs of research
One-piece Mesh Upper
Top 10 Shoes for Orangetheory
1. Brooks Ravenna 10
One-piece Mesh Upper
Runs ½ Size Small
Stiffer Than Previous Generations
For those who need a stability shoe to correct mild overpronation, or help support flat arches, but still want a lightweight model, the 10th edition of the Brooks Ravenna offers an excellent solution. This road running shoe is a popular option among those who prefer to forego bulk, and focus on working smarter with less. It’s a simple looking pair of footwear, with just a couple of color options and a 10mm heel to toe drop that will work well for the average user.
The upper of the Ravenna uses a one-piece mesh upper that is mainly focused on providing adequate air flow and moisture management. Key sections are made with close-woven material to increase durability, while the midfoot is held in place through synthetic overlays that extend from the arch up to the laces. The tongue and collar are lightly padded, preventing heel pain and allowing you to tighten the fit as much as you need.
The outsole uses BioMoGo DNA cushioning for a responsive ride that’s durable and works well for users of different weights. As for stability, that’s ensured by a GuideRails system that’s placed on the sides of the shoe, directing the foot’s movement, preventing it from rolling inwards or outwards during all types of movement. The outsole is made with blown rubber, but what makes it great for Orangetheory workouts is the Midfoot Transition zone which is put there for a higher level of flexibility. As for cost, this model ranks slightly higher than average, but isn’t as expensive as some of the other models listed in this guide.
2. Brooks Adrenaline GTS 19
Engineered Mesh Upper
Generously Padded Collar and Tongue
Blown Rubber Outsole
One of Brooks’ best running shoes, the Adrenaline GTS 19 is a stability shoe developed for users with flat to medium arches and mild overpronation. But what makes it such a great option for indoor workouts is the fit, generous cushioning and durable outsole. In true Brooks fashion, it comes both in medium and wide widths, so users who need a bit more toe space won’t have trouble finding a size that works with their foot shape.
The upper of the Adrenaline uses engineered mesh that will allow for great moisture management, while the 3D print overlays ensure support in key areas. Both the collar and tongue are generously padded for the best possible in-shoe feel, and the lacing system allows for easy adjustments.
The sole of the Brooks Adrenaline is a work of art in itself, as it uses BioMoGo Technology which cushions based on your personal needs and is environmentally friendly. The heel portion includes a DNA Loft insert that’s highly shock absorbing and offers great rebound, while the GuideRail Holistic Support System prevents your foot from rolling inwards during runs and workouts. The outsole uses blown rubber for lightweight traction and added cushioning, while the flex grooves allow the foot to move naturally, without constraints. As for the price, this shoe ranks slightly above average, but is an overall good investment for most users who need a bit of extra support, and a higher level of shock protection.
3. Nike Free X Metcon 2
Mesh and Neoprene Upper
TPU Midfoot Cage
Dual Density Foam Midsole
5mm Heel to Toe Drop
Combined Rubber Outsole
No Front Pull Tab
This futuristic looking shoe was designed to do well with a wide variety of workouts, including runs and gym sessions. It’s highly breathable, supportive and stable, and in true Nike fashion, it looks amazing, with plenty of popping color options. The Nike Free X Metcon 2 combines the best parts of Nike’s flagship models for great results you’ll definitely appreciate.
The upper combines lightweight, flexible and breathable mesh in the forefoot area, with a neoprene construction in the midfoot for a fit that looks and works great. A bootie construction ensures a seamless fit, with the TPU cage and fully customizable lacing system allowing for the shoe to wrap up around the midfoot from the arch. A pull tab at the heel makes on and off easier than most other models, while an external heel counter ensures a locked in feel.
The midsole of this model uses double density foam for shock absorption, but it’s placed on a firm base for great support even during heavy lifting. The outsole combines carbon rubber, which is extremely durable (and is placed on the inside of the big toe to prevent wear in the area), and blown rubber for increased cushioning. The traction pattern resembles that found on the Free RN 2018, which allow a great amount of flexibility. In terms of price, this shoe falls in the average category, and is a great investment for most users.
4. Adidas Ultra Boost
Boost Responsive Cushioning
German-based shoe company Adidas started with a vision to bring quality shoes to the world. They have succeeded in that. Their brand has been widely known for over a century due to the quality and dependability of their shoes. The Ultra Boost shoe is an athletes dream. It will be great for Orangetheory, as the shoe is highly-flexible and lightweight. You will be able to fly through your workouts as these shoes keep your feet dry and comfortable.
This shoe makes use of Primeknit, an adaptive foot wrapping design that cradles and cushions the foot. Furthermore, it provides the ultimate stability and support during your workouts. These shoes are highly adaptive to movement as this allows the show to flex and move with you instead of holding you back. The torsion system works to bring a fluid ride and step between the heel and forefoot. It adds an increased stability factor to make you confident in your steps. Lastly, it reinforces the overall shoe.
These are definitely at the highest end of our price range when we are comparing it to the other shoes in the category. However, know you will get a lot of value and use from these shoes. Not only are they extremely comfortable but you can wear them for all of your workouts and possibly for casual wear. You can trust that your purchase is a high-quality shoe that will transform your workouts.
5. Adidas Alphabounce Beyond
Continental Rubber Outsole
Designed for Multidirectional Movement
Lacks Arch Support
Difficult On and Off
The Alphabounce Beyond by Adidas is a versatile running sneaker that puts emphasis on breathability and flexibility, while providing you with the right amount of cushioning you will need during your Orangetheory sessions. This neutral shoe comes in a huge number of color options, so you can show off your personal style during your favorite workouts. The fit is exceptional in the upper, mainly thanks to the stretch zones in the mesh material, while wide platforms underfoot, both in the forefoot and rearfoot, ensure a good amount of stability.
The upper of the Alphabounce Beyond uses a Forgedmesh upper that is exceptionally supportive and works well both for linear and lateral movement. It will provide a customized fit, while the lacing system and support zones ensure great lock in. The heel is held in place through an integrated Fitcounter.
The outsole on the Alphabounce Beyond uses Continental rubber that works great outdoors, both on dry and wet surfaces. For those using these indoors and on treadmills, it will work just as well, seeing that it’s durable, and can be purchased in light colors that won’t mark gym floors. The Bounce cushioning is highly responsive, and responds to the amount of force being applied, with a high rate of rebound. As for price point, it mostly depends on the color option you go with, so this shoe can cost you from average to way below average, for an affordable pair of training sneakers.
6. Reebok CrossFit Nano 8 Flexweave
Made for Versatile Use
Snug Bootie Fit
Abrasion Resistant Outsole
Dual Density Midsole
4mm Heel to Toe Drop
The brand behind official CrossFit gear knows a thing or two about making a great pair of shoes for versatile movement. The Nano 8 Flexweave by Reebok is the best version of this shoe yet, with improvements in terms of fit and performance, and a price point which will work for most people looking for quality, durable footwear. The shoe is focused on stability, with a 4mm drop that will allow you to perform at your peak, whether it’s cardio or a power workout you’re doing. Plus, it comes in a huge number of color options, which is a great plus.
The biggest update in the 8th edition of the CrossFit Nano comes in the upper, which is cut low in order to allow for maximum flexibility and freedom of movement, while the Flexweave material uses fibres woven into a figure of 8 which is both supportive and flexible. Breathability is ensured through the material itself, as well as a mesh tongue. A Toe Tection portion ensures durability in the front, while the heel bootie gives you a snug yet comfortable fit.
The midsole and outsole on this sneaker were developed to give both cushioning and flexibility, as well as support and stability. The midsole uses dual foam - softer in the forefoot and firmer in the heel area, so you can easily use this model for lifts without worrying about stability. The outsole is non-marking with flex grooves for increased mobility, and it’s abrasion resistant, so you can easily wear it for treadmill runs. The lateral sides use RopePro ridges that allow you to grip during rope climbs and descents. As for the cost, it’s average compared to the other models listed here, with the only downside of this model being excluded from most of the brand’s promotions.
7. Nike Metcon 4
Flywire Midfoot Design
Dual-density Foam Midsole
Versatile Cross-training Use
Nike Logo Wears
The Nike Metcon 4 is made for intense training and exercise that requires a stable base. The heel of this shoe is practically flat so that it can endure during workouts that require heavy lifting. Serious athletes love this shoe as it keeps their feet secure and stable. Next, the shoe stays in place on the ground as it has a sticky rubber forefoot. Grooves in the forefoot promote flexibility and natural movement. The midfoot has a flywire system built into the shoe that flexes the upper of the shoe with the foot.
Heel clips are specifically designed to reduce drag during wall or flat exercises. They are precisely placed to encourage the best from your workouts. The purpose is to make your workouts more beneficial because you shoes work with you instead of holding you back.
The full-length outsole adds traction and stability to the shoe. Some shoes cut it short under the sole and it can reduce the performance of the shoe. It also encourages the sole to land evenly as opposed to being off-kilter upon the foot strike.
The price point of these shoes in the lower to mid-range of our category. They are a great purchase at a great price. You will get plenty of use from these shoes. They are a great and versatile shoe that can go through many different types of workouts. You will feel confident in wearing these shoes and be happy with the added boost during your workouts.
8. Mizuno Wave Inspire 14
Pebax Fan Weave
Internal Stability Points
Full-length Stability Plate
Cool Mesh Material
This version of the shoe has been nicely updated from previous versions but the company did not add any weight or bulk. The Mizuno shoe category always strives to provide a fluid feel upon roll through from heel to toe. The springlike bounce-back lets you transition quickly between exercise moves. Hidden internal straps support and cradle the midfoot to give unmatched support. Finally, underfoot the sole is designed to be just a tiny bit longer than the actual upper. Therefore, that provides more support and stability.
The blown rubber technique gives shoes a light and airy step that spring back. Blown rubber also contributes to the traction and grip of the sole on this shoe. Moreover, this technology is considered the highest standard in the sports shoe world.
Think of the wave bringing together the correct amounts of cushioning and stability. The cushion is just enough to make your foot feel very supported and the stability makes you feel in total control of your motions and movements. These two things work in perfect harmony. The Mizuno Wave Inspire shoes are at a great price point for most budgets. The shoes are in our mid-range of price points and they are not necessarily going to break the bank with their cost. They will last through daily exercising and running. Mizuno has become a top contender based upon their durability and quality products.
9. No Bull Training
Sidewall Carbon Guard
Born from CrossFit style workouts, the No Bull brand was designed for athletes that go hard, no matter what the workout brings. From lifting, climbing, pushing and pulling, to running and more, it’s zero drop rugged sole will perform however you need it. Breathable uppers give it flex and breathability for hot sweaty workouts. With added support features along the lateral and medial sides, it’s also great for side to side movements without wearing out the sneaker’s integrity.
A newer brand to the scene, No Bull was developed for those who want to do it all. Running, lifting, escaping zombies, and more, this trainer style sneaker has the support and cushioning needed to be a great all-around contender. Zero drop makes it great for deadlifting and squat stability, and the rugged sole has a multi-use lug pattern so you’ll maintain traction however you move. Lateral and medial high carbon guards give added sidewall structure, so you can go full force into movements without worrying about the sneaker’s integrity failing.
The uppers of the No Bull Trainer consist of SuperFabric, which is breathable, resistant to abrasion, durable, and constructed with a single seamless design. Guard plates on a flexible base layer of mesh help create durability and protection against rope climbing, scrapes, and dragging. The lightweight of these sneakers will keep your fatigue down and help conquer more rounds to scorch calories during your OrangeTheory workout!
Similar to other quality brand sneakers, it priced about the same, but if you’ve not yet tried a pair of No Bull Training shoes, consider this your invitation. Zero drop design, firm support and construction, and the combination of breathable lightweight materials help make it a surefire win for tough workouts. Great for beginners of advanced practitioners of any high demand sport!
10. Saucony Triumph ISO 5
Great Energy Return
Small Toe Box
Shoe Runs Narrow
Saucony is a brand that creates shoes with the wearer in mind. They have so much technology involved in their shoes, it is no wonder that they always rank high in quality, durability, performance, and comfort. The Triumph is a classic shoe that continues to improve itself with each update. These are made with Everun technology which encompasses many different portions of the shoe. It redesigns the cushion system layout, the return energy output, and makes the shoe more durable. Saucony shoes are highly breathable and pull the heat and moisture away from your feet.
The ISOFit upper gives your shoe a custom-made feel as it adapts to your foot. It conforms so closely to your foot, it feels like you are just wearing a sock. The technology is supposed to increase your performance ability as it feels like you are not bogged down with a shoe. Grid positioning redevelops the stability of the shoe. As well, it adds to the cushioning and response of the shoe. This feature is loved by athletes worldwide and we are sure you will love it too.
The Saucony ISO is actually our choice in the category of best value. It is the lowest priced shoe in our guide. This shoe is manufactured by a trusted company so even though it is the lowest priced shoe in the category don't let that fool you about the quality and dependability.
Criteria Used for Evaluation
The number one factor we strive to bring with the highest level of shoes to the list is for durability. No one wants to spend money on shoes that don’t last more than a few weeks. Moreover, shoes can be expensive! Some athletic shoes easily top hundreds of dollars! The durability factor will be especially true for Orangetheory. The workouts are very demanding of the body, as well as the shoes. Therefore, we searched through so many shoes to find the footwear with the highest durability.
Some people save and budget for everything. Also, they plan for the shoes they do purchase to last a definitive amount of time. If the shoes wear out before then, it might not be in their budget to replace them. Some key components that make a shoe durable are the material, the construction method, and the care guidelines. However, it also depends on how the buyer takes care of the shoes. New technology allows for shoes to be constructed from different materials that are all very durable. Mesh is usually the chosen material to use in athletic shoes as it supports good air flow and encourages flexibility of the shoe. Furthermore, some shoes are made of leather. While leather has its benefits to long-lasting capabilities, it can be hotter on the foot.
Secondly, the construction method heavily constitutes how long a shoe is going to last. If the shoe is assembled with poor standards and no overseeing quality control, the durability is not going to be there. Shoes that have good strong materials and properly tuned machinery or human assembly are going to last longer. The stitching method has a lot to do with good durability. Reinforced stitching or thread that is heavy duty will add to the durability of a shoe.Glue is also widely used in the construction of a shoe. Glue binds the layers of the sole together. Additionally, glue is sometimes used to attach the upper to the sole if stitching is not present. As long as the glue is a good quality and commercial grade, it is wonderful to use. It also gives the shoe a more seamless than stitching look if that is what the designer is looking for. However, with glue, it is hard to fix should it come loose somewhere on the shoe. Conversely, stitching can be replaced by a cobbler or shoe repair store.
Some shoes are machine washable and some are not. Being not machine washable might sound like a downside to a product. However, in reality, washing machines can do damage to clothing and shoes. The high speed at which it spins out can wreak havoc on materials after just one wash. Moreover, think of washing the shoes once a week and then there is damage that can really be done. Add to that, those individuals that still have agitators in the machines and that puts more strain on the material, laces, and sole. Even if a shoe is machine washer friendly, it is best advised for you to hand wash your shoes.If you are worried about the smell that can linger in a shoe after being sweated in repeatedly, opt for shoes that have removable inserts. That way you can simply replace the insert or take it out to soak before washing. You can also sprinkle a tiny amount of baking soda in a shoe after your workout. It will do wonders for absorbing foul smells. Before wearing again, simply shake the shoe upside down and release the baking soda. You could also add a drop of essential oil under the footbed of the shoe to help with smells. Many oils are completely safe for skin contact. However, avoid peppermint or cinnamon based oils, as they can get hot if they come near the skin. Also, please note oils can stain the shoe so place it on the INSIDE of the shoe only.
Tips for Longevity
We have some suggestions listed below that can help you ensure the longevity and integrity of your shoe. These are helpful for Orangetheory shoes or really any other type of shoe.
Newspaper stuffed: take a ball of newspaper and push down into the toe area. Not only will it absorb odors and wetness, it can help retain the shape of the shoe.
Treat with a protectant spray: this can include a waterproofing material which helps protect your shoes in the elements. It makes spot washing easier as well.
Do not use a washing machine: while a bit more tedious, hand wash or even better, spot clean your shoes only. But if you must completely wet the shoe…
Do not use a dryer: It can compromise the structure and integrity of the shoe. It can shrink the shoe. It also wears out the elasticity of the shoe. Place in an airy window or covered outdoor spot. It is best to avoid the sun as it can fade the colors.
Use a shoehorn: everyone knows when you slide your foot into a shoe it crinkles the back of the heel. Over time that weakens the heel structure. Use a shoe horn to preserve the fabric. Also, it is a good time to make it a habit to untie your laces EVERY time you take the shoe off. This loosens the shoe up for the next time you put it on.
Another highly important characteristic to look for in a shoe for Orangetheory is the amount of support and the stability it provides. Orangetheory is a fast-paced and rigorous workout. You absolutely must have shoes that can keep up with the demands of the class without sacrificing your form and jeopardizing your body. The last thing you need to have happened is sustaining an injury while working out. Most of the time, aside from user error, injuries in a gym setting can be prevented with proper footwear. Correspondingly, the injuries may not be felt at the time of class but more likely when you get home hours later.
Wearing improper shoes for the activity can result in sprains, torn muscles, shin splints, collapsed arches, and more. This is not supposed to scare you away from exercise. But rather, to draw attention to the utmost importance of wearing the proper shoes. Each day more than 10,000 people seek treatment at an emergency facility for injuries sustained in sports, recreation, and exercise. This is not including to a person’s routine doctor. Equally important, a large portion of injuries could have been prevented if wearing the right shoes.
A highly supportive shoe will have a padded collar and tongue area. This supports the ankle from rolling out from under you and the top of the foot from chafing. Supporting the ankles prevents sprains and even broken ankles. The overall structure of the shoe will be just rigid enough to keep the foot secure; while at the same time allowing for some flexibility so you can complete the movements required in Orangetheory maneuvers.
If you are fully active for an entire hour and doing the workouts set forth in Orangetheory, you will pour buckets of sweat. It is easy to wipe your face or neck with a towel when you are sweating. However, it is not so easy to wipe your feet while in the middle of working out. Your feet are stuck inside shoes and by personal choice socks. You will need to find a shoe that has a very high breathability and air flow component.
Materials that have the highest breathability are usually mesh or mesh-like. Mesh is an interwoven design where air can flow through the microscopic holes between the strands of fabric. It allows moisture and heat to escape from the shoe. Mesh is also faster drying than a material such as leather. It won’t retain smells as easily as leather or some synthetic materials. Leather, while generally considered by some to be more durable, will most definitely keep your feet hotter. If you are a person that is not bothered by wet feet then you can choose either option. However, if you are searching for a shoe that will allow air to flow through and around the shoe, a mesh design will be your best choice.
Shoes that stay wet have a higher chance of growing bacteria, fungus, or mold inside them. Therefore, it is important if your shoes do get sweaty to get them dry after every class. Otherwise, not only are you risking contracting a fungus, you are lessening the life of your shoes.
With all of the quick motions and high intensity that Orangetheory junkies do, having a shoe that can keep up will be imperative to the success of your workout. If you have on shoes that work against you instead of assisting you, you could face burn out and fatigue. It will make it hard for you to be successful on your journey with Orangetheory if you cannot keep up. No one likes to be discouraged while working out.
A shoe that is designed to move with your foot and with just enough sole structure to stick and stay will foster great success. You need a shoe that is going to be ultra-responsive that within milliseconds can absorb the impact of the foot and transfer the energy back out to fuel your workout.
Furthermore, you should look for a shoe that has a pretty flexible sole. If you purchase a sole that is too rigid to allow for quick and brisk movements. The transitions of your foot through each exercise is going to completely rely on the midsole construction of the shoe. Contrary to that, if you have a midsole design that is too lose you risk the chance of injury because the shoe does not hold underfoot. Moreover, it does not support the integrity of the foot. Upon landing, if the midsole is too weak, you could land incorrectly or off-gait and seriously injure the foot. You could potentially break the bones of the foot, twist an ankle, or sustain a worse injury.
With the prevalence of slips and falls, it is super important to find a shoe that provides adequate grip. More importantly, finding the right balance between grip and release. Likewise, many falls result from the traction being too tough and not releasing the shoe from the ground quickly enough. You should consider shoes that have a good rubber sole. The tread thickness off of the sole should be very small; to clarify, it should barely come off the sole and almost appearing flush with the sole.
The sole of a shoe will probably be the first thing to wear out on the shoe. Keep a watchful eye on the soles of the shoe. You can analyze the treadwear to see if you have regular pronation, which is the way your foot lands and rolls through. On the other hand, you could have overpronation or under pronation. This will cause the soles and traction to break down unevenly.
Furthermore, shoes that are being produced now compared to many years ago are being made from materials that are lightweight without losing all of the great features of a more dense shoe. However, the benefit to a lighter weight shoe is many faceted. It can prevent leg fatigue and up your exercise ability. Being able to lift your feet quickly and easily will add to the success you find in doing Oranetheory workouts. When you are done with your workout you will not feel as if you have walked through quicksand if you choose a lightweight shoe. You will have a quicker recovery time as well. Lastly, you should only choose to have weights on your legs with working out not having bulky shoes that weigh you down.
Expert Interviews & Opinions
Part of Orangetheory's foundation of success, is the use of HIIT in their workout designs. HIIT stands for 'High Intensity Interval Training'.
This type of training uses intervals burst of maximum effort during an exercise, with a short rest period, repeated for a specific amount of time. For example, you can do jump squats for 20 seconds, rest for 10 seconds, and repeat the interval for 4 minutes for a total of 8 rounds.
This kind of exercise has been shown to burn off calories in a shorter timeframe than longer, less intense cardio activities.
Many Orangetheory gyms and hubs have been popping up all over the place, and most likely, there is one close to you.
Get involved and go in for a trial class or week, see if you enjoy the workouts, feel challenged, and like the environment. If you're feeling good, sign up for a membership, and get fire up those glutes!
Other Factors to Consider
You can imagine that your whole body takes a massive workout during these 60-minute class training sessions. Therefore, you having footwear you can depend on is an absolute must when you are taking classes at Orangetheory Fitness. You will be doing everything from running, which can be hard on the joints, to weight room floor exercises. In essence, you will need to have shoes that can transition as quickly as the exercises. You are going to need a shoe that is lightweight and breathable because you will be sweating buckets after the hour-long burn session.
After reviewing our list of the 10 best shoes to wear for Orangetheory exercises, we hope you will get out there and try a class. You will feel supported and confident in any of the shoe choices provided above. Your health is the best investment you can make. If you don’t take care of your body with the proper exercise paired with good lifestyle choices, you might regret it later on. It is also never too late to get started on your health journey. Orangetheory Fitness also usually has specials for one free class listed on their website. It is a great chance to get out there at no cost to you. Lastly, they strive to be a no-pressure option. You won’t have someone harassing you to join with scare tactics. They believe the benefits will sell themselves.
Frequently Asked Questions
q: What is Orangetheory Fitness?
Orangetheory Fitness was founded in 2007 with a desire to revolutionize fitness and the way we workout. It is based on HIIT, high-intensity interval training. The goal is to put your heart rate into the proper fat and calorie burning zone. The class-setting group-training last for 60 minutes and is proven to burn 500-1000 calories per hour.
q: What to expect at my first visit to Orangetheory?
Upon arriving at an Orangetheory fitness center, you will be greeted and given a heart rate monitor. This is a very important key to the success of Orangetheory. You will talk with a trainer about any health limitations you might have. They will also talk about your overall health goals. Then, you get your schedule for the class and proceed to whatever station the schedule starts at. Finally, the class begins with high-energy music and a pumped up instructor.
q: Can I participate in Orangetheory workouts with a disability?
Orangetheory instructors are able to show modifications to the routine based on certain disabilities. Furthermore, they can modify some of the routines to accommodate individuals with prosthetics and orthopedics. We suggest you seek the consultation of someone that is trained and works at the center for direct advice concerning your particular disability.
q: How many times a week can I do Orangetheory?
There are different membership levels that allow for so many classes per week. In contrast, there is also an option for unlimited visits. You can choose which level suits your needs and budget. Furthermore, you should not overdo any workout routine and cause harm to your body. Consult with a trainer and your physician in regards to what amount of exercise is safe to do for you.
q: How long until I see results with their type of exercise?
As with any fitness routine and individual your results will vary. Most people typically see changes in a few classes. In addition, it also depends on if you make diet and other changes or if you have adverse health conditions. Each individual will see varied results.